Handling in awkward postures – twisting bending or over-reaching
Reaching – the further the centre of gravity is from your spine, the greater the stress on your back
Combining two activities – Twisting while bending is particularly harmful
Constricted workspace – handling materials with limited manoeuvring space can increase the muscular exertion required to complete a task.
Repetitive handling – risk increase of cumulative damage
Static load – carrying loads involves static effort in stabilising the shoulders and trunk. This could lead to injury of the muscles of the back, shoulders and arms. Wear and tear on the intervertebral discs can occur. Carry distance can affect the duration of static loading and increase the risk of adverse effect on the body
Asymmetric lifting – lifting and twisting or lifting with 1 hand can cause stress on the lumbar area
Carry distance and time carrying a load will increase the risk of injury by the heavy load compressing on the body( intervertebral discs) for long periods of time due to distance will most likely cause damage.
A workplace can minimize repetitive load movement by a well-designed workplace and use of mechanical aids for frequent lifting rather than manpower. Rotation and side movement is dangerous because of stress on the lower back.